Oxford University Press, Directory of popular music, Edited by Barbara Cohen-Stratyner. Edited by Nat Shapiro and Bruce Pollock. The collector's guide to Victor records. In collaboration with William R. Moran and Kurt R.
Monarch Record Enterprises, A guide to pseudonyms on American records, Directory of American disc record brands and manufacturers, Fagan, Ted ; Moran, William R. The encyclopedic discography of Victor recordings: Hoffmann, Frank et al. Roll back the years: National Library of Canada, Also published in French under the title: Edited by David Ewen.
The (almost) complete 78 rpm record dating guide in SearchWorks catalog
Composers, Authors and Publishers Association of Canada. CAPAC presents all-time song hits Composers, Authors and Publishers Association of Canada, [? Gramophone records of the First World War: Introduced by Brian Rust. David and Charles, . Edited by Roger Lax and Frederick Smith. Lissauer's encyclopedia of popular music in America: Facts on File, c EMI, the first years. Variety music cavalcade, With an introduction by Abel Green. Printed reference materials The following are some of the main printed reference materials that were used in compiling the information in the Virtual Gramophone database, as well as in many of the articles featured in the History and Biography sections of this website.
Music encyclopedias and biographical dictionaries Record catalogues, guides and song indexes Discographies Music histories and chronicles References used for song lists Music encyclopedias and biographical dictionaries American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers. Contemporary Canadian composers Encyclopedia of music in Canada.
Facts on File, c Martland, Peter. Routledge and Kegan Paul, They launched a number of labels, listed below. Their masters were leased extensively to other independent companie. They also appear to be closely related to the Consolidated Record Company, the final manufacturer of Emerson records. Plaza operations were merged with Cameo and Pathc', themselves combined only a few months before, to form the American Record Corporation, in a deal f inan ced substantially by the Crystalate Company, a British firm who issued Plaza recordings overseas.
The more notable Plaza-related labels are listed below. The first Plaza label, and the only one to bear the Plaza name on the labeL Banner was first sold in January, Z It appears to have been dropped aroimd the end of One source credits the label as having been pressed for S.
Kresge, although this has not been verified. The other labels in this group, such as Oriole see below and Challenge, were client labels. They were pressed on lower quality material used pseudonyms for almost aU issues, and used B-sides not issued on other labels. Jewel first appeared in and was dropped in Not all of these were recorded or pressed by Plaza, but the majority of issues iLsed Plaza sides. The records were sold by mail in groups of eight at a very low priers. They appear to have sold well initiall y, but the rarity of later issues indicate sales drofifK'd off later.
The label name was changed to New Phonic in , and a few more records issued. This was the store label for the McCrory chain. The first dozen or so were pressed by Cameo, although Cameo masters were not usuaUy used; these appeared in late Oriole records were pressed by Plaza, later ARC The label is known to have been pressed until early , and may have lasted until When Emerson was reorganized in , the Regal Record Company was spun off as a separate firm, and became the record manufacturing arm of Plaza until ARC was organized. Note that Plaza and ARC pres.
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Those known are listed elsewhere, including Challenge and Silvertone under Sears and Uomestead and Herwin under their own names. Existing labels acquired by ARC are in the appropriate sections Le. Perfect, Melotone, Cameo, etc. The firm was founded as one of the distributors for the North American Phonograph Company. They began producing cylinder reemds around After a drawn-out patent fight, they made licensing arrangements with Victor to allow both firms to press disc recordU in Their first discs appeared under the Climax name, but by were sold as Columbia records.
Columbia was purchased by the Grigsby-Grunow Corporation, who sold luxury radios, but they themselves failed in , and the Columbia label was purchased by the American Record Corpwation. La , the Col umb ia Broadcasting System ironically, or iginall y financed in part by Col umb ia Records at its fo unding bought the American Record Corporation, and, logically, restored the Columbia label as the flagship line in They are detailed below. See the section on early independent labels for further discussion of thi. Some use Columbia catalog n umb ers.
The actual connection of the inventor, Marconi, with this label is not known. The label was pressed c. The label was short-lived. These labels were pressed for Sears, Roebuck and Company q. The following labels were also pressed by Columbia. This was a line of S-inch records pressed for sale in Sand-lO-cent stores from until about Some were made by the artists who cut the selection for Columbia, but most used "house" artists.
The earliest have an embossed "label" and later issues have a small paper labe-L first yellow then orange. It was drojiped in , along with the other low-priced labels.
It was also pressed and sold in Canada, and early Canadian issues carry a slightly different price notice. This was a lower-priced 35 cent label which appeared in It used sides recorded for Harmony, but paired them differently, and some Brides appear to have been cut for Clarion only. This label was pressed for the W. Grant chain of stores from to The issues duplicated Harmony and were numbered in parallel but higher and with a C suffix.
Columbia pressed records for a number of movie studios including the original Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer record!
The name was also used by Sears, which may be the reason for the change. It duplicateed Harmony with numbers KXH higher and a -V suffix until , when it began using distinct pairings and numbers. It also pressed and sold in Canada but there is no significant difference in Canadian issues. No client or subsidiary labels drew from the higher-priced Ciolumbia line from onward.
Some which may appear to contradict that statement are from the series below. Columbia provided the service of recording and pressing records for anyone for a set price.
Some were identified as Col umb ia product, but others appeared on individual labels numbered in the -P sequence, or bore catalog numbers in their own sequences. Columbia operated Okeh as a separate company from until , and the name was used until at least and twice thereafter, from to and from onward, as a subridiary labeL Okeh had its own s ubsidiar y labels, even after the Criumbia acqurition, and these are detailed under Okeh as welL 13 DEGCA In , the recwd industry was at rock bottom.
Prior to this, lower-priced labels generally featured lesser talent while the stars appeared on the expensive labels. In Decca negotiated an agreement with the Compo Gmpany q.
It was eventuaRy acquired by the giant Music CorpwaticHi of America, and the Decca name was dropped, although recently revived for a reissue series. Brunswick was used by Decca and onward and Vocalion from about onward. Those series are listed under the label names in question, and the history under the Brunswick name in the American Record Corporation section. This deal included rights to the Cennett matrices stiR in existence, and to the ChamjHon label as weR, Decca continued the Champion label from until mid, issuing both Cemiett material and new recordings, in popular, country and race scries; these series are listed imder CHAMPION in the Cennett section.
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